如何在家辅导孩子学习Phonics(自然拼读),6种方法给到你

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在中国,越来越多的家长开始重视起给孩子地道的英文学习环境,其中必须要提到的一点就是自然拼读法,很多少儿英语学习都用这五个字做招牌,但回到家后爸爸妈妈真的知道如何在家辅导小朋友吗?

今天小编就给大家带来六种英国小学的方法来指引大家在家也能辅导小朋友学习英文Phonics!

1

入门篇:字母卡片练习识别单个字母发音

(Practice letter recognition and sound recognition using a set of alphabet cards.)

Shuffle the cards in random order and have your child say the name of each letter. Next, have your child produce the sound of each letter.

爸爸妈妈们可以把字母卡片的顺序打乱,让小朋友说出每个字母的名称,接着就可以发出每个字母的音节啦。

As your child becomes more skilled as a reader, he/she will need to read words with letter patterns – two letters combined to represent one sound. Using flash cards have him/her practice letter patterns such as vowel pairs: /ea/, /ee/, /oa/, /ai/, and digraphs: /sh/, /ch/, /th/, and /wh/.

当孩子们对“字母读者”的角色愈加熟悉时,爸爸妈妈们就可以开始介绍给小朋友字母发音组合啦。比如:两个字母组成的单个音节。音节卡片在此时就可以上场了,双元音:/ea/, /ee/, /oa/, /ai/, 或是组合单音:/sh/, /ch/, /th/, /wh/.

2

分类篇:识别字母发音匹配

(Identify letter sound matches. )

To build sound letter matches, have your child sort pictures cards according to their beginning sounds.

为了建立良好的字母匹配知识,可让小朋友做一些根据开头发音归类图卡的小练习。

Select picture cards that begin with the 3 initial consonant sounds that are very different such as: /b/, /s/, & /t/. Review the cards before you have your child sort them: bear, triangle, smile, spoon, sunflower, spinner, sign, train, tree

一次可选择三种不同词首辅音字母的卡片比如/b/, /s/, /t/这种差别较大的。在给小朋友布置分类的任务之前,先检查一下挑选出来的单词卡片是否符合要求。(选用范例:bear, triangle, smile, spoon, sunflower, spinner, sign, train, tree)

If your child needs support ask, “What is the first sound you hear in the word bear? What letter makes the /b/ sound? Is it the letter b, s, or t?

如果小朋友在游戏进行中有需要帮助的地方,可以尝试问问如下种类的问题:在bear这个单词里,你第一个听到的,发出/b/这个发音的字母是哪个呢?是b,s,或者t?

Then have your child sort the pictures according to their ending sounds.

首字母练习完毕,结尾字母也可以被利用起来。试试让小朋友再以结尾字母发音为标准分类单词吧!

Activities of increasing difficulty include sorting pictures according to their medial sound represented by their vowel pattern: /e/: seal, peas, read, team, wheel; /o/: boat, coat, toad, road OR according to their beginning digraphs: cards: chair, cherries, shoe, sheep, thread, three, wheat, whiskers.

像这样的归类小游戏可以逐渐增加难度。比如以单词中间发音归类图卡,(例如:带有元音/e/的单词seal, peas, read, team, wheel; 带有元音/o/的单词boat, coat, toad, road)或是以出现词首的组合单音节为标准给单词归类(例如:chair, cherries, shoe, sheep, thread, three, wheat, whiskers)。

3

组词篇:搭建单词,为每一个音节提供“小盒子”

(Build words.Create a set of boxes. Each box represents a sound in the word.)

Place different magnetic letters below the set of boxes. Black letters represent consonants, and red letters represent vowels.

这个活动可能需要用上一些磁石字母卡片,并且可以用颜色区分字母类型,比如以黑色代表辅音字母,红色代表元音字母的形式。

Dictate a CVC word – three letter word that consists of two consonants and a vowel. The vowel appears in the middle of the consonants and makes the short vowel sound. CVC words consist of the same number of sounds and letters. Examples include: cat, hat, sat, bat, pet, set, bet, tap, cap, cab

听写CVC单词,这种单词一般由一样数目的字母组成例如:cat, hat, sat, bat, pet, set, bet, tap, cap, cab

(注:CVC单词,即辅音+元音+辅音组合的单词,两个辅音字母之间的元音字母发短音。)

Next, have your child say the word slowly pronouncing each sound heard: /c/, /a/, /t/.

接着,可以让小朋友慢慢地‘拼读’单词中的每一个音节例如/c/, /a/, /t/

Ask your child to choose the correct letter for each sound heard. Have him/her begin building the word by placing the first letter in the first box moving from left to right. This will help to reinforce that the letters need to be placed in the correct order to build (make) the dictated word.

再下来,可以让小朋友在听到单词发音的时候选择正确的字母。从首字母开始,将这些字母从左至右地安置到‘小盒子’中。这种练习能够加深小朋友对单词字母顺序的印象。

4

意识篇:帮小朋友培养起理解字母规律的意识。

(Develop an understanding of letter patterns. )

Extend the activity by dictating words that include vowel pairs and/or digraphs. Words consisting of vowels pairs and digraphs (two letters combined to represent one sound) will always have a greater number of letters compared to sounds.

游戏活动可以拓展为听写含有双元音或是组合单音节的单词。这些单词中字母的数量都会比音节多,是一个练习检查phonics知识储备的好机会哦

5

替换篇:调换字母,改变单词。

(Switch letters to change the word.)

Sounds said in the correct order produce desired words, therefore the positioning of letters is essential in building the corrects words. Switching letters/sounds will change a word. Begin by displaying the magnetic letters that are needed to build the dictated words. Next, draw three or four boxes depending on the number of sounds heard.

正确的字母顺序才能拼出理想的单词,这样同时印证了字母的位置对一个单词来说有多重要。调换字母,也就是改变了单词本身。从之前的简短单词着手,根据学习需求,可以适当增加’小盒子‘空间的数量,让孩子认识更多的字母发音组合。

Dictate the word cat and have your child listen to the sounds and place their corresponding letters in the correct order from left to right.

为小朋友听写cat这个单词,让他们听着发音从左到右拼出完整的单词。

Next, ask your child to switch the letter c with the letter that makes /h/ to build the word hat.

接着,可以让小朋友把字母c换成发音/h/的字母,重新组成hat这个单词。

Continue by having your child replace the h with the letters that make the /ch/ sound. Ask your child to read the new word – chat.

再来,h可以被替换为发音/ch/的字母,并教孩子读出新单词chat。

Have your child change the word chat to chap.

首字母替换玩腻了,可以试试调换其他位置的字母。把chat换成chap需要几步?

Activities of increasing difficulty would include longer words with more patterns.

这样的小游戏可以一直增加难度,变成更长的单词,拥有更多的字母组合。

6

阅读篇:学习了字母和单词,接下来就可以过渡到阅读啦!

(Continue on the road to reading success To reinforce these skills, select books for your child that highlight the phonics patterns practiced in these activities. )

This will help your child to strategically apply the skills learned to reading words in books.

通过阅读练习,可以加深小朋友对学习单个字母的印象,给小朋友选择书籍,阅读材料的时候不妨把学习过的phonics都重点划出来用于着重练习。这种方法是之前学习phonics知识的延伸,可以帮助小朋友有条理的把学到的知识应用到阅读实践中去。

(来源:UKPS 英国留学中心)

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