浅谈明清瓷 康乾盛世各领风骚

英中网专栏作家:唐婉 2014年09月15日 04:21 已有0条评论

明代瓷器有个“粗大明”的说法,民窑大部分绘画制瓷工艺很粗糙,但崇祯很多瓷器却异常精美,一反万历到天启早期瓷器的粗朴(精品数量少),大约从天启崇祯顺治到康熙早期这一阶段(17世纪中),国家处于南北战争状态,御窑厂基本停滞,而民窑的烧造却达到了新高度,崇祯的青花,青花五彩瓷器,因采用了中国书画中水墨大写意的皴点法描绘,精品更是备注诗文与名款,画面唯美诗意,极富文人气。 这一时期刚好适应了当时的经济发展需求,景德镇大量出口瓷器到欧洲,除了极少的粗活,大部分出口到欧洲的瓷器都非常精美,而且风格正是明清瓷器转折过渡期,此段时间被称为过渡期瓷器(the Transitional Period porcelain)。 这段时间的精品瓷器,因其艺术品味极高,得到很多欧洲大藏家青睐珍藏。

随后的康熙一朝,国泰民安,瓷器也充满霸气;康熙朝精品的青花,青花五彩,五彩都是收藏之上品。康熙的棒槌瓶,观音瓶,凤尾尊,梅瓶,器形非常大气优雅,画工发色品相好的,价格不输官。 

而雍正朝的粉彩斗彩瓷器都是万人迷,雍正帝的品味与修养,使该朝瓷器造型秀雅,画片唯美,值得珍藏; 特别是雍正粉彩,珐琅彩及斗彩精品,柔雅秀美,清丽脱俗。 有不少精品民窑,很是值得珍藏。

乾隆帝是个俗人,这一朝的瓷器匠气十足,纹饰繁缛,讲究工艺,却缺少很高的艺术价值。 其官窑器价格已经被追捧过度,基本常人无法到手; 民窑器却因过于花哨,缺少文人气, 不得人心。

清代中晚期的国力日渐衰败,官窑器物多沿袭旧样,鲜有创新,嘉道时期的官窑精品有些还不错,只因量大,价格一般。嘉道的粉彩,特别是无双谱画片的,深得人心。 同光时期的瓷器,大婚瓷,大雅斋瓷器,以及后来的光绪官窑精品也不错,只是这一段的民窑,已鲜有艺术价值了,多做摆设,唯有浅绛彩瓷是画在瓷器上的中国画,极富意韵,名家绘制的更是价值不菲。

而最神奇的是民国时期,当时国内局势动荡不安,瓷器制作却达到了又一个高峰,名家的浅绛彩,新粉彩,特别是仿乾隆的精品瓷器,都是藏家热追的精品。

标签:明清瓷,康乾盛世
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